Verkehrsplanung und Verkehrstechnik

Anita Haider

Mobility is one of the basic needs of humans; it is the precondition to perform activities in different places. There are various ways to cover a distance -on foot, by bike, by public transport, by motorcycle or by car. However, since the big breakthrough of the car in the middle of the 20th century, the car is the most popular and most frequently used means of transport, due to the fact that it offers countless unique advantages like independence, privacy, self-actualisation and liberty. Furthermore, it was primarily the car that made it possible to colonise peripheral positions which was the beginning of the urbanisation with all its negative concomitants. Nevertheless, the passenger car implicates even more negative or rather irreversible effects on the environment and biota, on the climate, on the quality of life, as well as on the well-being of humanity. Due to the fact that urban areas are growing and most of the personal transportation is carried out in those areas, the negative effects of the individual motor car traffic are highly concentrated there. Therefore, cities of nowadays face the challenge to deal with the growing traffic as well as with the increasing urbanisation. Based on this development, this diploma thesis tries to present measures which deliver and support sustainable mobility. Since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, the concept of sustainable development has become more important and has been fixed in various ranges of politics. Sustainable de¬velopment is usually defined as a "development that meets the needs of the present with¬out compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". Generally it comprises three dimensions -Environment, Economy and Social Equity. With regard to traffic conditions it means prior improvement and preference of the non-motorised mode of transport (by bicycle, on foot) as well as the mode of public transport and the reduction of the individual motor car traffic. The first part of this paper contains an overview of measures for a sustainable mobility in European urban areas. The potential and the success of these measures particularly de¬pend on the acceptance and attitude of the urban population. Therefore, the second part of this thesis includes a quantitative survey, which was carried out within the Viennese population.